Friday, April 30, 2010

Unemployment March: Sweden still slightly below EU27

Graph 1: Change in the number of unemployed persons(compared to previous month, in thousands), seasonally adjusted

Graph 2: Unemployment rates in March 2010, seasonally adjusted

Unemployment statistics

Data from 30 April 2010, most recent data: Further Eurostat information, main tables and database.

Eurostat estimates that 23.130 million men and women in the EU, of whom 15.808 million were in the euro area (EA-16), were unemployed in March 2010. Compared with February 2010, the number of persons unemployed increased by 123 000 in the EU and by 101 000 in the euro area. Compared with March 2009, unemployment went up by 2.546 million in the EU and by 1.389 million in the euro area.
The euro area seasonally-adjusted unemployment rate was 10.0% in March 2010, the same as in February. It was 9.1% in March 2009. The EU unemployment rate was 9.6% in March 2010, unchanged compared with February. It was 8.5% in March 2009.
Among the Member States, the lowest unemployment rates were recorded in the Netherlands (4.1%) and Austria (4.9%), and the highest rates in Latvia (22.3%) and Spain (19.1%).

Thursday, April 29, 2010

Google search time line for Eurostat Sweden

Search Results

  1.  1998
    Nov 26, 1998 - Extra-EU data for Greece, Italy, Netherlands and Sweden, and intra-EU data for Greece, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, Finland and Sweden are estimates by Eurostat. On 1 January 1993, following abolition of EU customs controls, a new collection system for intra-EU data ... 
    From Press Release: -EUROSTAT: 6.6 bn Ecu euro-zone trade surplus with rest …Related web pages ...
  2.  1999
    Jul 28, 1999 - But it is significantly more common in Sweden (12% of all farms), Austria (9%) and Finland (4%). "The situation is changing rapidly", says Eurostat. From some 6300 in 1985, the number of organic and in-conversion farms in the EU is estimated to have exceeded 100000 in 1998. ... 
  3.  2002
    Oct 19, 2002 - European Report; April 5, 2003 ; 610 words ... ... according to estimates published on April 2 by the EU Statistical OfficeEurostat. Compared with December 2002, sales rose 1 ... sharpest growth was seen in Sweden (+4.4%), the United Kingdom (+4.2%) and Belgium (+4%), while Italy (+0 ... 
    From … PRICE RISES STEADY IN SEPTEMBER.(Eurostat report)(Brief Article) - …Related web pages ...
  4.  2003
    Mar 29, 2003 - The EU's Statistical Office, Eurostat, has published the first findings of an intelligence gathering exercise... ... The review applies to Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Finland, Sweden and the United Kingdom over the 1997-2000 period.

Monday, April 26, 2010

Internet use high in Sweden

Information society statistics from Statistics explained 

Data from September 2009, most recent data: Further Eurostat information, Main tables and Database.

This article presents recent statistical data on many different aspects of the information society in the European Union (EU). Implementing the information society is critical for improving the competitiveness of EU industry and, more generally, to meet the demands of society and the EU economy. Information and communication technology (ICT) affects people's everyday lives in many ways, both at work and in the home, and EU policies in this area range from regulating entire industrial sectors to protecting individual privacy.

Main statistical findings 

Households and individuals

Two thirds (66 %) of individuals in the EU-27, aged between 16 and 74 years, used a computer in the three months before the 2008 ICT survey. A similar proportion (62 %) of individuals used the Internet. The proportion of individuals using a computer and the Internet in the three months before the 2008 survey rose to between 80 % and 90 % in Sweden, the Netherlands, Denmark, Finland and Luxembourg, but was in a minority in Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Cyprus and particularly in Romania. Almost one third (32 %) of individuals in the EU-27 used the Internet for services related to travel and accommodation in 2008, the spread among Member States being from less than 10 % of individuals in Bulgaria and Romania to between 50 % and 60 % of individuals in Finland, the Netherlands and Luxembourg.
Among Internet users, in other words, those EU-27 individuals using the Internet in the three months before the ICT survey, a large majority (86 %) accessed the Internet from home. By comparison, about one half of this proportion accessed it at work (42 %), around double the proportion accessing from a friend, neighbour or relative’s house (22 %). While 87 % of all individuals aged 16 to 74 used a mobile phone, the proportion of individuals who used a mobile phone for browsing the Internet was only 6 % in EU-27. Finland and Sweden had the highest shares (16 %) for web browsing via a mobile phone.


About six in every ten enterprises (64 %) in the EU-27 with over ten persons employed (excluding those in the financial sector) had their own website in 2008. This share increased with enterprise size, as nine out of ten large enterprises had their own website; overall rates were highest in Denmark and Sweden.
Some 16 % of enterprises in the EU-27 received orders on-line during 2007, which was about three fifths of the proportion of enterprises (28 %) that used computer networks to place orders to purchase goods or services. The percentage of enterprises purchasing or selling on-line tends to rise with the size of the enterprise. It may be easier for large enterprises to finance investments for the introduction of e-commerce services. The general pattern across Member States is one where a considerably higher proportion of enterprises have made purchases on-line when compared with those that have received orders on-line (probably reflecting the greater complexity of setting up an on-line selling system compared with making purchases). Almost one third (32 %) of all enterprises in the United Kingdom received orders on-line in 2008, while corresponding shares were also equal to or above one quarter in the Netherlands and Ireland. In contrast, a small majority of enterprises in Ireland, Germany and Sweden made purchases on-line in 2008, with upwards of 40 % of all enterprises in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands also making purchases on-line.

Table 1: Use of ICTs and use of on-line services for travel and accommodation, 2006-2008 (% of individuals aged 16 to 74)

Graph 1: Internet access of households, 2007-2008 (% of all households)

Graph 3: Individuals regularly using the Internet by type of connection, 2007 (% of all individuals aged 16 to 74)

Table 1: Place of Internet use by individuals, 2007(% of individuals aged 16 to 74 who used the Internet in the last three months)

Graph 4: Individuals’ level of computer skills, 2007 (% of all individuals aged 16 to 74)

Graph 5: Individuals who ordered goods or services over the Internet for private use in the last twelve months, 2006-2007 (% of all individuals aged 16 to 74)

Graph 6: E-government on-line availability, 2007(% of online availability of 20 basic public services)

Table 2: Individuals using the Internet for interacting with public authorities, 2007 (% of all individuals aged 16 to 74)

Table 3: Proportion of enterprises that have remote employed persons who connect to IT systems from home, 2006 (% of enterprises)

Table 4: Enterprises using the Internet for interacting with public authorities, 2007 (% of enterprises)

Graph 7: Internet access and broadband connections among enterprises, 2007 (% of persons employed)

Graph 8: Proportion of enterprises' total turnover from e-commerce via Internet, 2007 (%)

Graph 9: Enterprises having received orders/made purchases on-line, 2007 (% of enterprises)

Graph 10: Information technology expenditure, 2006 (% of GDP)

A bird’s eye view of OECD housing markets

Housing markets have played a prominent role in macroeconomic developments over recent years.
For a great part of the 2000s, buoyant housing markets have contributed to sustained economic activity in
most OECD countries. But many markets overheated and the collapse of the US subprime mortgage
market has been at the epicentre of a deep financial and economic crisis. Against this background, this
paper: i) documents housing market developments in 18 OECD countries since the 1970s, putting recent
evolutions into historical perspective; ii) examines the drivers of supply and demand for housing; iii)
investigates the interactions between housing markets and the wider economy; iv) assesses the
responsibilities of housing taxation, monetary policy and financial supervision and regulation in fuelling or
amplifying housing booms; v) explores the link between global imbalances and housing booms.

Monday, April 19, 2010

Strong government finances in Sweden

From Statistics explained: Government finances statistics

Data from June 2009, most recent data: Further Eurostat information, Main tables and Database.

Graph 1: Public balance (1), 2004-2008 (net borrowing-lending of consolidated general government sector, % of GDP)
This article examines how key indicators of government finances evolved in the euro area and the European Union (EU) as a whole: deficit, debt, and revenue and expenditure.
These statistics are crucial indicators in determining the health of a Member State's economy and under the terms of the EU's Stability and growth pact (SGP), Member States have pledged to keep deficit and debt below certain limits.
A Member State's government deficit may not exceed 3 % of gross domestic product (GDP) while debt may not exceed 60 % of GDP. If a Member State exceeds the deficit ceiling, the Excessive deficit procedure (EDP) is triggered at EU level. This entails several steps – including the possibility of sanctions – to encourage the Member State concerned to take measures to rectify the situation.
Keeping deficit and debt below certain limits is also one of the criteria for Economic and monetary union and hence for joining the euro.
Specifically, this article considers public (general government) deficit, general government gross debt, total revenue and expenditure of general government, as well as total taxes and social contributions, which are the main sources of government revenue.

Main statistical findings

Table 1: Public balance and general government debt (1), 1998-2008

Graph 2: Image:General government debt (1), 2004-2008 (general government consolidated gross debt, % of GDP)

Graph 3: General government expenditure by COFOG function, 2007 (1) (% of GDP)

Graph 4: Government revenue and expenditure, 2008 (1) (% of GDP)

Graph 5: Taxes and social contributions, 2008 (% of GDP)

Graph 6: Public procurement (value of public procurement which is openly advertised, as % of GDP)

Graph 7: State aid, 2006 (1) (% of GDP)
In 2008, the government deficit and government debt of both the euro area (EA-16) and the wider EU increased compared with 2007.

Government deficit

In the euro area, the government deficit to GDP ratio increased from 0.6 % in 2007 to 1.9 % in 2008, while in the EU as a whole, it increased from 0.8 % to 2.3 %. The government debt to GDP ratio increased from 66.0 % at the end of 2007 to 69.3 % at the end of 2008 in the euro area. In the EU, it rose from 58.7 % to 61.5 %.
In all, five Member States recorded an improved government balance relative to GDP in 2008 compared with 2007, 21 saw a worsening situation and one Member State's balance remained unchanged.
The deficit ratios were above the target reference value of the Stability and growth pact in 2008 in 11 Member States, compared with the situation in 2007, when only two Member States exceeded the 3 % of GDP limit. In 2008, the largest government deficits in percentage of GDP were recorded by Ireland (-7.1 %), the United Kingdom (-5.5 %), Romania (-5.4 %), Greece (-5.0 %), Malta (-4.7 %), Latvia (-4.0 %), Poland (-3.9%), Spain (-3.8 %), France (-3.4 %), Hungary (-3.4 %), Lithuania (-3.2 %), and Estonia (-3.0 %).
Seven Member States registered a surplus in 2008: Finland (4.2 %), Denmark (3.6 %), Sweden (2.5 %), Luxembourg (2.6 %), Bulgaria (1.5 %), the Netherlands (1.0 %) and Cyprus (0.9 %). A substantial improvement of deficit/surplus ratios in 2008 as compared with 2007 was reported by two countries, Hungary and Bulgaria (by about 1.5 points each).
However, the deficit noticeably worsened in four Member States: Ireland (by 7.3 points), Spain (by 6.0 points), Estonia (by 5.7 points) and Latvia (by 3.6 points). Three Member States reported deficits for 2008 after a surplus for 2007: Estonia (from +2.7 % of GDP for 2007 to -3.0 % of GDP for 2008), Spain (from +2.2 % for 2007 to -3.8 % for 2008) and Slovenia (from +0.5 % for 2007 to -0.9 % for 2008).

Government revenue and expenditure

The importance of the general government sector in the economy may be measured in terms of total general government revenue and expenditure as a percentage of GDP. In the EU, total government revenue in 2008 amounted to 44.5 % of GDP, and expenditure to 46.8 % of GDP; in the euro area, the equivalent figures were 44.7 % and 46.7 % respectively. The level of general government expenditure and revenue varies considerably between the Members States. Those with the highest levels of combined government expenditure and revenue as a proportion of GDP in 2008 were Sweden, Denmark, France and Finland, for which the ratio to GDP was more than 100 %. Eight Member States reported relatively low combined revenue and expenditure to GDP ratios of below 80 %. Out of these, the government sector was smallest for Slovakia, Lithuania and Romania, where revenue plus expenditure to GDP was less than 72 % in 2008.
The main types of government revenue are taxes on income and wealth, taxes on production and imports, and social contributions. These three sources of revenue accounted for around 90 % of EU revenue in 2008 (see Graph 5). The structure of taxes within the EU in 2008 shows that receipts from social contributions, at the level of 13.7 % of GDP, were slightly higher than from taxes on production and imports and current taxes on income and wealth (both equal to 13.1 % of GDP). However, there was considerable variation in the structure of taxes across the Member States. In general, those countries that reported relatively high levels of expenditure tended to be those that also raised more taxes (as a proportion of GDP). For example, the highest return from taxes was 48.8 % of GDP recorded in Denmark, with Sweden recording the next highest share. The proportion of GDP accounted for by taxes was below 30 % in Ireland, Latvia, Romania and Slovakia, with the relative importance of current taxes on income and wealth particularly low in the latter two countries.
General government expenditure may be identified by using the Classification of the functions of government (COFOG) (see Graph 3). In all of the Member States, social protection measures accounted for the highest proportion of government expenditure in 2007, although it ranged from close to or more than 22 % of GDP in France, Denmark and Sweden to 10 % of GDP or below in Ireland, Cyprus, Romania, Estonia and Latvia (with the lowest level of 8.4 % of GDP). On average (weighted by GDP), EU government expenditure devoted to social protection amounted to 18 % of GDP. The next COFOG functions in ranking were health (6.6 % of GDP), general public services (6.1 %) and education (5.1 %). Spending on economic affairs in the EU was close to 4 % of GDP, whereas less than 2 % was spent on average on each of the following COFOG functions: defence, public order and safety, environmental protection, housing and community affairs, recreation, religion and culture.

Wednesday, April 14, 2010

TechTalk: liberating data in the internet cloud


It's fair to say that the most popular applications and services that exist today are all to be found in the internet cloud - rather than actually on your computer, as installed applications. Think social networks, email, photosharing, online documents, blogs - and much more of course.

Friday, April 9, 2010

Sweden second in fresh water resources per capita

From: Water statistics

Revision as of 13:59, 9 April 2010 by Mititli (Talk | contribs)
(diff← Older revision | Current revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)
Data from September 2009, most recent data: Further Eurostat information, Main tables and Database.
Graph 1: Freshwater resources per capita – long-term average (1) 2007 (1 000 m³ per inhabitant)
Water is essential for life, as well as an indispensable resource for the economy, while playing a fundamental role in the climate regulation cycle. The management and the protection of water resources, of fresh and salt water ecosystems, and of the water we drink and bathe in is therefore one of the cornerstones of environmental protection.
This article on water statistics presents data on freshwater resources and the human use of water in the European Union (EU), including water abstractionwater use and wastewater treatment and disposal.
In absolute terms, total freshwater resources were broadly similar in Germany, France, Sweden, the United Kingdom and Italy, as each of these Member States reported a long-term average of annual freshwater resources of between 188 000 and 175 000 million m³. When expressed in relation to population size, Finland and Sweden recorded the highest freshwater annual resources per capita (more than 20 000 m³ per inhabitant). In contrast, relatively low levels (below 3 000 m³) were recorded in the six largest Member States (Germany, Spain, France, Italy, Poland and the United Kingdom), as well as Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, the Czech Republic and Romania, with the lowest level in Cyprus (420 m³ per inhabitant).